According to Organizational psychology refers to a branch of psychology that studies various areas of concern in human behaviors in the various settings of organizations. Muchinsky states that organizational psychology relies on research and psychological principles which are scientifically based in order to comprehend human conduct in diverse kinds of organizations (4).
Organizational psychology adds to general psychology since it is relevant to job settings in its application. Although organizational psychology shares some of the fundamental theories in psychology it has its own theories, principles and practices which cater to the particular need of organizations and address the concerns of organizations in a way that is particular to their dynamics. Those who practice organizational psychology need specialized training some of which can be acquired at business school.
Organizational psychology has been growing in response to needs in the organizational world according to Lawson and Zheng (20). According to Lawson and Zheng Plato realized the need for quality leadership, Aristotle looked at communication dynamics while study by Machiavelli formed the basis for modern work in the areas of politics and power in organizations (27). Other scholars have added to the dimensions of organizational psychology by looking at different aspects of the work environment like labor, charismatic leadership, motivation of employees, productivity and goal setting.
Organizational psychology emerged as a field in psychology because there was need to solve problems in business with the use of applications in psychology. The solutions could turn out well to be quite practical. With break down in classes in society and industrialization more people from uncommon backgrounds needed to efficiently work together. Thus organizational psychology became practical in turning principles and theories that have been known to work into practical practices in the field of work environments.
There are several fields in organizational psychology according to Landy and Conte (10). These fields generally represent the segments that make up a whole in organizational psychology. According to Landy and Conte one of the fields is filed selection and placement deals with the recruitment of workers for an organization and entails matching up an organization with employers who will meet the goals and objectives of the organization (93).
The second is training and development which ensures that hired workers are equipped with necessary skills to improve their work (315). Performance appraisal is the third filed and deals with judgment of workers performance to find out if an organization benefits from the work done by the workers (227). The fourth field is organizational development which deals with examination of the construction of an organization in order to find out if it adequately meets the needs of its internal and external customers (320).
The fifth field looks at the quality of work life which examines the basic determinants of productivity within an organization (620). These then can be applied to ensure satisfaction of employees or human resource. The last field is human factors (55). This field deals with the use of measuring tools which are well-suited for use by people. It looks at how proper they are in their use and how reliable they are.
Organizational psychologist work within the system of organizations to enhance employee productivity. They are involved with the assessment and training of employees as well as management of human resources. They fill business positions in an organization in order to work in the various capacities they are hired to. They can be involved in administering personality tests during recruitment, on-going evaluation of workers and the examination of how changes in an organization can enhance the overall productivity of an organization. Organizational psychology and the psychologist continue to have a big impact in organizational business.
- Landy, Frank and Conte, Jeff. Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial
- Organizational Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. 2009. Print.
- Lawson, Robert and Zheng, Shen. Organizational Psychology: Foundations and
- Applications. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print. Muchinsky, Paul. Psychology applied to work. 8th ed. Belmont: CA: Thomson.